Indigo Class 12 Summary NCERT CBSE English Flamingo book Chapter 5 “Indigo” author name Louis Fischer. He was an American journalist, born in 29 February 1896. This chapter based on life of Mahatma Gandhi. The writer met Gandhiji in 1942, heard this incident from him. A poor farmer explained the problems of his district to Gandhi, who used to harass the people of those districts. Hearing this, Gandhi was inspired to fight the British. Gandhi went to Champaran to listen to that atrocity and got him freed from the atrocities.
Through this article describes the “Indigo class 12 summary“, theme, NCERT book difficult word meaning, explanation, message, important short, long questions solution.
Indigo Class 12 Summary
This incident is of 1917, Gandhiji tried to get to know about the incident in detail and he decided that he would leave Brittis from India. Gandhiji went to Lucknow in December 1916 to attend the annual meeting of the Indian National Congress.
A poor and weak farmer in Chasamparan district named Rajkumar Shukla reached out to gandhiji, and requested him to come to his district. Shukla followed him wherever Gandhiji went. While Shukla attended a political rally to be held in Patna, Shukla took Gandhiji to a lawyer named Rajendra Prasad.
But they could not meet him due to not being in the house, then both of them came to muzaffarpur to learn about Champaran. He was welcomed at the station, stayed in Muzaffarpur for two days and inquired about the problem from the farmers distributed there. The officer there gave information about the cases going on in the court, Gandhiji was angry at taking more money from the distributed farmers.
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Much of the land cultivated in Champaran was British, of which the British forced the tenant to share 15% of his land with Indigo and surrendered the entire Indigo crop as rent. When the zamindars came to know that Germany had developed synthetic indigo, they demanded compensation to get rid of the shareholders.
Many farmers signed voluntarily from the Jisson if someone took help from a lawyer. Meanwhile, the synthetic indigo news reached the sharecropper and they felt that they were cheated. He was very tense and wanted his money back.
In such chaos, Gandhiji reached Champaran, urging the Secretary of the British Zamindar Association to put the truth together. The secretary told him that no information will be given to any outsider, to which he replied that he is not an outsider. Gandhiji then went and met the British Commissioner. Gandhiji say that he was threaten and ordered to leave Tirhut.
Gandhiji came to Motihari (the capital of Champaran), many people gathered and were welcomed, stayed in a house at the same place as his headquarters and issued his inquiry from the same. They came to know that a farmer in a nearby village abused another farmer. Gandhi himself began investigating this matter.
Gandhiji received an official notice by the police that he would have to leave Champaran. On receiving the notice, Gandhiji boycotted the order, due to which he was called to appear in court the very next day.
Gandhiji did not sleep that night, he sent telegrams to Rajendra Prasad, who also gave a full information to the subedar. The next few thousand farmers reached Motihari and gathered around the court. Employees started feeling powerless. They wanted to help the authorities for their problems. Gandhiji felt that this battle was start up of escape for the British.
Gradually many people gathered and the officers thinks rachitic. Gandhiji helped the authorities in controlling the multitude. He reassures them that the British are scared and will not be tortured anymore. The trial was postponed, Gandhiji protested the fend and confessed that he violated the law. The magistrate declared a two-hour leave and ordered Gandhiji to be granted bail.
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Gandhiji met with several trained lawyers and consulted about the problem with the farmers, then he told Gandhiji that he was ready to follow him to jail. Data for the injustice being done to the Patidars. When the lawyers consulted among themselves, they all thought that when Gandhiji is ready to go to jail for those farmers, then they should not leave them. Many of whom also supported them.
Civil Disobedience Triumphs, Lieutenant-Governor Summons Gandhi
Gandhiji, lawyers and farmers together collected all the documents. Gandhiji was summoned by the Lieutenant Governor, Sir Edward Gate. Farmers was questioned there, many even protested, about 10,000 people attended. Gandhiji met the Lieutenant Governor four times and appointed a public servant to investigate this.
Gandhiji reached Champaran and stayed there for seven months. The evidence against the landlord was faked. All the evidence proved to be true after being examined by a government employee. They agreed to return their share of the amount to the farmers. The farmers consulted Gandhiji about how much they would have to pay. Gandhiji asked for only 50 percent of which the zamindars demanded 25 percent.
Gandhiji decode to the peasants that the amount to be returned was too low for them that the landlords were forced to give some money and some their own prestige. The peasants have so far seen that he had rights and also his protectors. He learned courage. All these events justified Gandhiji. Within a few years the British landowners left their vast plots. These have now returned to the farmers. The cultivation of Neel’s share had disappeared.
Gandhiji wanted to do something about culture and social backwardness in Champaran villages. He himself took help from his family, his wife Kasturba and his two sons also supported him. People from many other places of the country also participated in it. First of all, he opened schools for studies in the villages and made medicines available for the opposed people.
Gandhiji asked Kasturba to concentrate on women wearing dirty clothes. One woman had to wear the same sari, the other took Kasturba to her hut and showed them that there was neither a wardrobe nor boxes to keep clothes. During his long stay in Champaran, Gandhiji kept a watchful distance from the ashram and sent regular information by post.
The Champaran incident had become a big part of Gandhi’s life. They realize that what they are doing is nothing. Gandhiji was born about the plight of poor and poor farmers. His politics was linked to the day-to-day problems happening in the lives of millions of people.
Gandhiji also gave knowledge of self-reliance to his supporter. In return for what he has done so far, he wants to see an independent India, which can stand on its own feet and thus make India independent. Charles Freer Andrews, an English pacifist who had become a devoted follower of Gandhi, came to say goodbye to him.
Gandhiji’s lawyer friends wanted Andrew to assist him. On which Gandhiji objected. Because Gandhi wanted to win the war, it is necessary to trust in himself. In this way Gandhiji gave knowledge of self-sufficiency to his supporter.
According to him, Andrews’ help was showing weakness in his heart. He confident them that the only reason for this was that they should trust themselves to win the war. Such that Gandhiji taught him the lesson of self-reliance. Self-reliance, Indian independence and assist to shareholders were all girded mutually.
Gandhiji protested against Andrews asking for help, according to him it was a loss of weakness for a person. He confident everyone that the greatest battle can be won if it is self-sufficient. Such that Gandhiji gave knowledge of self-sufficiency to his supporter. Self-reliance, Indian independence and assist to shareholders were all girded mutually.
Indigo Class 12 Summary Difficult Word Meaning
The given some difficult word meanings of the NCERT flamingo textbook chapter “Indigo class 12 summary” English.
- Convention – gathering, meeting, assembly, conference, convention, session
- Delegates – in particular an elected representative sent to a conference
- Proceedings – Chance medley, prompt action
- Recounted – detail, repeated
- Emaciated – weak, sleazy, little, feeble, unstressed, small
- Towering – especially in comparison with the surroundings
- Resolute – admirably purposeful, determined, and unwavering
- Tenacity – perseverance, religious austerity, bodily mortification
- Haunches – a buttock and thigh considered together
- Yeoman – a servant in a royal or noble household
- Pestered – pall, vex, incommode, troubled, harm, gnaw,
- Indigo – a tropical plant of the pea family
- En route – en route, in transit, by the way, on one’s way
- Imparting – give, grant, pass, allow, put, render
- Harbour – a place on the coast where vessels may find shelter
- Advent – incarnation, embodiment, personification, reincarnation, personating
- Conveyance – something from one place to another.
- Champion- winner, victor, conqueror, titlist, champ, number one, gold medalist
- Chided – revile, vilify, abuse, chide, rebuke, berate
- Arable – arable land or crops.
- Estates – an extensive area of land in the country
- Tenants – property rented from a landlord
- Holdings – an area of land held by lease
- Harvest – the process or period of gathering in crops
- Irksome – vexing, vexatious, galling, exasperating, displeasing
- Thugs – killer, assassin, terrorist, murderer, slayer, assassinator
- Bully – a person who habitually seeks to harm
- Forthwith – instantly, directly, right away, now, quickly, fast, speedily
- Summons – magistrate, or the writ containing it.
- Spontaneous – spontaneous, natural, Flowing, Inartificial, unforced, Intuit, impulsive
- Concrete – solid, material, real, hard, firm, physical
- Baffled – foil, frustrate, neutralize, baffle, mystify
- Reconvened – especially after a pause in proceedings
- Conferred – paid, conferred, delivered, conferred
- Desertion – abandonment, leaving, stranding, neglect
- Far-flung – vastly, extensive, comprehensive, spacious, capacious
- Grievances – complaint, grievance, jeremiad, gravamen, accusation, injustice
- Deposition– the action of deposing someone, especially a monarch
- Vehement – passionate, forceful, ardent, impassioned, heated, spirited, urgent, strong
- Protracted – lasting for a long time or longer than expected or usual
- Entreaty – entreaty, prayer, suit, request, petition, application
- Unlettered – Illiterate, unlettered, analphabetic, non-literate, untaught
- Crushing – embarrassment, mill, pulverise, pulverize
- Adamant – refusing to be persuaded, rigorous, hard, strong, and bloody
- Deadlock – a situation, typically one involving opposing parties, stop, moratorium, ban
- Unanimously – without opposition, without exception, concertedly
- Prestige – prestige, status, dignity, majesty, standing, respectability
- Defenders – life saver, protector, defender, keeper, savoir
- Reverted – alternator, returns, default, come back, regress
- Sanitation – conditions relating to public health, sanitation
- Eruptions – burst, explosion, eruption, detonation
- Defiance – resistance, opposition, confrontation, noncompliance, disobedience
- Alleviate – reduce, ease, relieve, weaken, and dull
- Distress – disaster, calamity, hazard, peril, adversity
- Intertwined – twist or twine together, entwine, interweave
- Pacifist – a person who believes that war and violence are unjustifiable
Indigo Class 12 Summary Important Questions & Answers
1. How did the Champaran peasants react when they heard that a Mahatma had come to help them?
Ans. When Gandhiji was presented in the court the next day, a crowd of thousands of farmers also gathered there. The farmers of Champaran did not know about Gandhiji, but they were encouraged to come to help him. Outside the court, all of them together created a ruckus and presentation. Policeman numnah powerless and Gandhiji supported the police to clear the crowd.
2. Why did Gandhiji oppose when his friend Andrews offered to stay in Champaran and help the peasants?
Ans. Andrews wanted to live in Champaran because he wanted to help the farmers. Gandhiji opposed this because they wanted to people of India live up to their feet and do not take the help of any British to do any work and they wanted to give India a new look and he told the farmers of Champaran about self-sufficiency.
3. Why do you think Gandhi considered the Champaran episode to be a turning point in his life?
Ans. Gandhiji considered the Champaran episode an important turning point in his life because, the first civil disobedience movement of his life. Gandhiji saw the soaking of poor farmers and he tried to get rid of them from the British. Because Gandhiji felt that the farmers there had a fear of the British, which Gandhiji gave out of their courage. With the helps of many farmers, it was certified that this episode blazed daring and patriotism between Indians.
4. Why did Gandhiji decide to go to Muzaffarpur before going to Champaran?
Ans. The road to Champaran goes through Muzaffarpur But he decided to go to Muzaffarpur first because he wanted to know about the conditions of Champaran through Shukla. Shukla greatly assisted Gandhiji as lawyers for Muzaffarpur, Shukla often represented peasant groups in the courts and curtail Gandhiji about his cases.
5. What did the peasants pay to the British landlords as rent?
In ancient times much of the land of India belonged to the British, in which Indian farmers used to work. The British landlords forced the Indian peasants to hold their 15% stake with Indigo and disavow the complete indigo out-tern in fare.
6. Why did Gandhi agree to a settlement of 25% refund to the farmers?
Gandhiji believed that the amount of refund was small in that the landlords were forced to return part of the money, but many farmers were happy with such a small amount. Gandhiji was losing his reputation with the withdrawal of this amount so he agreed to refund 25%.
7. How was Gandhi able to influence the lawyers? Give reasons.
The lawyers wanted Andrews to live in Champaran for support him but Gandhiji insurgent him. Gandhiji said that taking support from the British would be his biggest weakness. He told everyone that any fight would be standing on his feet, so he taught everyone a lesson of self-reliance. Gandhiji could do anything for the poor farmer, he was also ready to go to prison. The lawyers were also effective by this, they too were now desirous go to prison.
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