The Last Lesson Summary, Questions & Answers of Class 12

The Last Lesson Summary, Questions & Answers of Class 12

The last lesson summary author name Alphonse Daudet. He was born in 1840 in France & Died in 1897. It describes the last lesson summary, theme word meaning, important short, long types, value based and miscellaneous question of chapter 1 of class 12 flamingo books. It also contains the answers to questions given in the last of the NCERT english book and the questions asked in the CBSE board exams previous year are also included in it.

The Last Lesson Summary

“The Last Lesson summary” was set in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, in which Prussia, led by Bismarck, defeated France and the French districts of Alsace and Lorraine entered Prussia’s hands.

The story has two protagonists, M Hamel and Franz. M Hamel studied French at a school and Franz is one of his students. The story tells how war proves to be a transformation event for both.  

Introduction: Franz is not keen on going to school

Franz started going to school very late in the morning. His French teacher, M Hamel had announced that he would problem the participants in class. Pitiable Franz did not know a single word about him and was horrified at being scolded by his teacher. It was a sunny day, and moment Franz thought of running away and spending the day outside.  

The tweeting of birds and the drilling of Prussian armed forces was much more attractive than the rules of the participants. However, Franz was able to fight the excitement and spur-of-the-moment to school.  

On the way to school, Franz saw a crowd standing in front of a bulletin board passing through the town hall, so he only heard bad news for the last two years, so he thought he had done the case, as he was hurrying into the past.

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The waiter, the blacksmith, called him and said it was too late to reach school. He thought he was making fun of her. Then he has reached the school’s panting.  

He had to open the door and reached his seat in front of everyone. He was blushing and became very afraid. This made her very surprised and confused that instead of scolding her, M Hamel spoke to her very politely and asked her to sit in her seat.  

Franz notices many things while going to school

After Franz calmed down, he noticed that M Hamel was wearing some different clothes. That’s Hamel wore only on special occasions.  

The whole school was doing very strange practices and the atmosphere was serious. But the thing that surprised him the most was that he wanted to see the people of the village sitting quietly on his back. They all looked very sad and everyone had sadness on their faces.    

Order from Berlin: the Last Lesson Summary

Franz was still wondering as he observed the changes around him, when M Hamel mounted on his chair and made the dreadful announcement. He told the class that it was there, the last lesson summary of French.  

The order had come from Berlin to teach only German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine and he would be departure the school the after that day. These words were like a thunderclap to little Franz. Now he remembered the gathering at the town hall.  

Franz was totally shocked by the abrupt turn of dealings. He regretted not having learnt his lessons when there was still time.

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Now, he will never be able to learn them. He had wasted his precious time away from the class, engaging himself in trivial pursuits like seeking bird’s eggs, going sliding on the Saar, etc. His books, which were a nuisance to him, suddenly felt like old friends. His feelings for his teacher too started changing.  

The thought that M Hamel was going away and he would never see him again, made him forget all about his ruler and how cranky M Hamel was. Franz was feeling very sorry for him.  

It was in honour of his `the last lesson summary’ that he had put on his fine clothes, and the village people had gathered there to say their thanks towards him, and to show their value for their country.  

M. Hamel criticizes himself and the citizens of Alsace

When Franz was thinking this, he called his name; it was his turn to narrate. Would have given him everything if he had said it more clearly than the rule, but unluckily he got mixed up on the first words. He was blushing and stood up holding his desk.  

M Hemel said that he would not beat Franz. He criticized the people of Alsace for their habit of keeping them from learning until the next day. He was blamed for not giving his parents an interest in his studies.  

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He blamed himself for this as well. Frequently, he sent students to water their plants or discharged them when they hunted to go fishing, it was their fault.  

Significance of Mother Tongue

M. Hemel spoke about the French language when he called it the most attractive, most explicit and most logical language in the world. He wanted the people of France to retain their language among themselves.  

According to him, whenever people of a particular nation are imprisoned, they fast for their language; it seems as if they have a key to jail.  

The Last Lesson Summary

M. Hamel opened a grammar book and qualified him the last lesson summary. Franz was surprised to see how well he understood everything. He thought that perhaps he never paid much attention to the class and that M Hamel had never explained everything with so much patience. He then had a written text.  

M Hemel brings new copies for him that day and everyone was engrossed in their work. Even small children sitting in the classroom were tracing their fish hooks, as if they were French.  

Last good bye of The Last Lesson Summary

While doing all this, M Hemel remained motionless in his chair, when Franz thought that M Hemel was watching this classroom scene. In support of 40 years, M. Hemel had worked sincerely in his school and now he was about to leave. His sister was packing his luggage. All this is really heartbreaking for him. In “the last lesson summary”, that was a history lesson.


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Anyway, if a person does any work with complete impunity, then eventually someone will become emotional. Some even started crying, but M. Hamel listened to each “the last lesson summary” with courage and patience. Finally, as the church clock struck twelve, M. Hemel stood upright.  

It was very clear that he had also become affecting. He tried to speak, but was suffocated. Then he turned to the blackboard and wrote as big as he could Vive La France! That means long-lived France. He then dismissed the class, signalling everyone to depart.  

NCERT Book Word Meanings: The Last Lesson Summary

The given page numbers correspond to the pages in the CBSE class 12 the last lesson summary NCERT textbook.

The Last Lesson Summary, Questions & Answers of Class 12
The Last Lesson Summary word meaning

List of word meaning of chapter the last lesson summary:

  • Dread- fear, phobia, terror, apprehension, misgiving
  • Drilling- practice, exercises, exercise, training, praxis
  • Resist- resistance, opposition, protest, opposite, antagonism
  • Apprentice- trainee, seminaries, novitiate
  • Bustle- stir, bustling, ado, commotion, clutter
  • Unison- harmony, consistency, consistence, adjustment, correspondence
  • Rapping- incrimination, knocks, clatter, dab, take the rap
  • Counted on- rely, rest, depend, rely on, keep faith, remain
  • Commotion- stir, bustling, bustle, ado, clutter
  • Blushed- abash, be shy, make ashamed, feel abashed, put to shame
  • Solemn- serious, grave, deep, sedate, heavy
  • Primer- prayer book
  • Thunderclap- thunderbolt, wallop, thunder peal, thunder stroke
  • Wretches- poor creature, poor soul, poor thing, poor unfortunate
  • Saar- a river in Western Germany, Rising in the Vosges Mountains in eastern France
  • Cranky- lank, scrawny, slight, scraggy, spindly
  • Puts off- avert, avoid, stave off, cast aside, defer, postpone
  • Reproach- disdain, scorn, spurn, mock, disparagement
  • At one stroke- Instant effect in a single action
  • Twined- pull, jerk, tug, twist, twitch, pinch, squeeze
  • Angelus- the bells in the tower above tolled the first Angelus
  • Bearing on- touch, relate, come to, pertain, refer, concern, touch on, up hold continue, preserve, and carry on
  • Vive La France- long live France

Very Short Question Answer: The Last Lesson Summary

The Last Lesson Summary, Questions & Answers of Class 12
The Last Lesson Summary

(1)”What a thunderclap these words were to me!” What were the words that shocked and surprised the narrator? 

Ans. M Hemel announced that there was an order from Berlin to stop schooling French and it was his last French lesson that seemed to be a rumble to Franz. He will no longer learn his native tongue French.  

(2) Why was Franz confused? What added to his confusion? 

Ans. When Franz arrived at the school, he saw the entire place as unusually quiet, strange and serious. He was behind schedule for school and thought that M Hemel would scold him. But, to his surprise, M. Hemel spoke to him very politely and invited him. However, what he liked most was the presence of village elders in the classroom.  

(3) How did Franz perform when his turn came to recite? 

Ans. While it was Franz’s turn to recite, he mixed in on the first words and stood in his place, embarrassed. He did not have the courage to look at his teacher and confront him.  

(4) How did M Hamel praise the French language? 

Ans. M. Hamel called French the most beautiful language in the world. According to him, it was the most salubrious and clear language. They wanted the citizens of France to keep it among them and never forget it.    

(5) How is the mother tongue important? 

Ans. The mother tongue is representative of the true identity and nature of a nation. It acts as a binding force, creating unity among the countrymen. M Hamel correctly said that when persons are slaves as long as they hold their language, it is as if they had a jail key.    

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(6) What was M Hamel’s contribution to the school in Alsace? 

Ans. M. Hemel gave the school forty years of extended and trusty service. However the students cranked him up and he was a true Frenchman at kindness, who took great pride in teaching his mother tongue. He loved school and wanted children to love his language.  

(7) Franz was able to understand everything that day. Why? 

Ans. Franz thought that perhaps I had never paid so much attention in class and that M. Hamel had never explained everything with patience. Probably, there were many reasons that he was able to understand everything well that day.

(8) What did M Hamel teach the class in the last lesson summary? 

Ans. In his ‘the last lesson summary’, M. Hamel taught in class about grammar, then about writing and finally a lesson in history. More than that, he explained and made his students aware of the importance of their mother tongue, and taught them to be proud of their language.  

(9) What is’ Linguistic Chauvinism’? Explain this in reference to M Hamel’s views about his language. 

Ans. ‘Linguistic Chauvinism’ means carrying arrogance in one’s language too far. But the love of Hemel and the village elders for the French did not depend on it. Slightly, they are fatalities of it, with German being imposed on French-speaking people. M. Hamel is actually proud of the French language. He urges others to certainly not forget such beautiful language.  

(10) What did M Hamel tell them about the French language? What did he ask them to do and why? 

Ans. M. Hemel praised the French tongue and called it the most attractive, obvious and most logical tongue in the world. He told them to preserve their tongue or protect themselves and never forget it.  

(11) What did Franz notice that was unusual about the school that day? 

Ans. Usually, when school started, there was a big commotion, which could be heard on the street. But all this was still as quiet as Sunday morning.  Nor was there any opening or closing of the desk and his classmates were already in their places.

(12) How did M Hamel say farewell to his students and the people of the town? 

Ans.  At the end of his ‘ the last lesson summary’, m. Hamel rose to bid farewell to his students and the people of the city. He then turned to the blackboard and wrote, ‘Vive la France’. Then he dismissed the class with his hand gesture.  

(13) What was Franz expected to be prepared with for school that day? 

Ans. Franz hoped that he would be ready to give the last lesson summary to the contestants. M Hamel who was his French teacher. He had announced that he would question the participants about the class, but Bad Franz did not even know the first word about him.  

(14) What had been put up on the bulletin board? 

Ans. Order from Berlin was written on the bulletin board. The order was that from the next day only German schools would be taught in Alsace and Lorraine and new teachers would join the school from the next day.  

(15) Whom did M Hamel blame for not giving due attention to their language?  

Ans. M. Hamel blamed the people of Ales for not paying concentration to their language from working while attending school. He also blamed himself. Regularly, he sent students to water his plants and when he wanted to go fishing, he just discharged them.  

(16) Who did M Hamel blame for the neglect of learning on the part of boys like Franz? 

Ans. M. Hemel blamed himself for Franz’s neglect of learning the language on behalf of the boys. He was a little unsure and would take depicting students’ behaviour and study whenever needed. M Hamel also blamed himself and parents for not taking attention in his teaching.  

(18) What announcement did M Hamel make? What was the impact of this on Franz? 


“This is the last lesson summary of French lesson. How did Franz react to this declaration of M Hamel ? 

Ans. Franz was astonished to hear the announcement that Hamel announced that they would give him his last French the last lesson summary as the order arrived from Berlin, only to teach German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine.  

(19) What changes came over little Franz after he heard M Hamel’s announcement? 

Ans. After listening to the statement Franz was deeply saddened and regretted not having knowledge of his session and was helpless to learn his mother tongue. His books suddenly became his old friends whom he could not leave.  

Long Questions: The Last Lesson Summary

(1)Draw a character sketch of M Hamel. 

Ans. M Hamel is portrayed as a character on many sides with his temperament. In the beginning, he seems to be a typical school master, who the students are very afraid of and are very strict. M Hamel gives the dreadful news of the French the last lesson summary being last in class; he sees an entirely different side to it. However, as the final lesson begins, he is very kind and gentle towards his students. He did not scold Franz for being late or not being able to recite his text. He is also a true patriot of heart.  

He calls French the most beautiful, clear and most logical language in the world. He desires the people of France to keep their language among themselves. He gets very exciting towards the end, because when the final goodbye moment arrives, he is suffocated and simply writes on board, as big as he cans, ‘Vive la France!’  

(2) Describe the change in the attitude of Franz towards his language and his teacher.  

Ans. Franz initially does not want to go to school. He has never been an honest and devoted student. He fears that his teacher M Hemel will scold him, as he has not learned the last lesson summary. He finds his teacher hard and wandering.   When he arrives at the school, he is surprised as M Hemel talks to him politely. He is still confused and absorbing the situation.  

M. Hemel declares that his final French lesson. Poor Franz no longer regrets that he learned his lesson. He knows his mother tongue very little and now he will never learn it. His books, which were a nuisance to him, suddenly seemed like old friends. The thought that he would never see M Hamel again would make him forget about his insanity. He starts feeling very sorry for his teacher.  

(3) Explain “M Hamel was an epitome of patience that day— A true patriot” 

Ans. M. Hamel was very patient that day. He did not comment on Franz’s late arrival. When he did not follow the rules of the contestants, he did not scold Franz. In fact, she blamed them all for neglecting the study of their mother tongue, the French language.   He was a patriot according to the fact that he praised the French language for its clarity, logic and beauty and called upon his listeners to fast on it.

M. Hamel had been teaching in school for forty years, so when he left school everyone was overwhelmed with emotions. But M. Hamel maintained the utmost dignity and restraint. He demonstrated strong courage and patience and listened to every lesson till the last. At the end of the lesson, he wrote on the blackboard, ‘Vive la France!’, Meaning ‘Long-lived France’, indicating that he was a loving person, a true patriot.  

(4) Why did M Hamel not scold Franz for not learning his lesson? 

Ans. M. Hummel scolds Franz for not learning his lesson, because it was too late to do anything about it. It was M Hamel’s last day at school. He was supposed to teach the “last lesson summary” to his students that day. Even the messengers reflected the mourning that pervaded all hearts. It was a very emotional day for all.  

M Hamel was also not on his usual strictness that day as it was not just another normal day at school. It was very natural that M. Hamel was also made aware of the fact that he would never teach French after that day. He told everyone that he had always stopped learning the next day and now there is not much time left to learn. He was surrounded by emotions to think about scolding anyone and so he has not scolded Franz.  

(5) Explain the importance of the parting message on the day of ‘The Last Lesson summary: Cite some examples from the text to support the explanation.  

Ans. The day of the last lesson summary was filled with regret and sadness. Everyone – French language teachers, students and village elders – appeared in a very sad mood. People were stunned by the New Berlin order. This aroused a sense of patriotism towards his language.  

M Hamel announced that he was going to deliver “the last lesson summary” in French. He has called French the most beautiful, clear and most gentle language. He parted with the message that one should preserve one’s language because it is the key to one’s freedom. This left a deep impact on the audience. He completed his class by writing ‘Vive la France’ on the blackboard. These farewell messages awakened the patriotism of the people and instilled in them a sense of love and respect for their mother tongue.  

Value Based Question: The Last Lesson Summary

(1) Franz thinks, “Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeons?” What could this mean?                                                                               Or

After reading the chapter, you realise that man has an intense desire to subjugate others. You feel that in the modern world, there is a strong need for brotherhood. Write an article in about 120-150 words for a national magazine on this.  

Ans.                                                 What will you conquer?                                                                                                

By XYZ  

During the Battle of Franco-Prussia, as the story relates to ‘The Last Lesson summary’, France lost two of its districts to Germany. The Germans pass briefing that from now on, only Germans will be qualified in schools. The irritation of the Germans and the French is quite a failure. It has filled the people with great nationalistic feelings. Unexpectedly, the pigeon cooed on the roof in a small tone, and Franz asks himself if they would sing the pigeons in German as well.

This comment is a typical response of a French person to learn German. The attitude of the French is full of hatred and frustration. It also shows the extent to which the Germans will go in their attempts at linguistic conservatism. It is clear from the example in question that man has a strong desire to impose his will on others, to restrain others. This very instinct of man is responsible for stress, turmoil and conflict in the world. In today’s world, only kindness, tolerance and a sense of brotherhood towards our fellow beings can lead us to peace and prosperity.  

Miscellaneous Question: The Last Lesson Summary

The Last Lesson Summary, Questions & Answers of Class 12
The Last Lesson Summary

(1) The people in this story suddenly realise how precious their language is to them. What shows you this? Why does this happen? 

Ans. While the order came from Berlin that only German schools be taught, people realized that today was the last day to learn their mother tongue. Many elderly people came to attend the school to show their fondness for the language, they also occupied the back benches. Which were usually already empty? Franz regretted not knowing the participants.  

When M. Hemel suddenly introduced him to the fact that he would become a butt of all the jokes before the Germans, his language was his identity, the ‘key’ to his prison. The strongest proof of how important his language became can be taken from the last text of M. Hamel. Everyone was very attentive. Franz also found the text quite easy to understand, when he has previously found French “the last lesson summary” very tricky.  

(2) “When a people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language, it is as if they had the key to their prison.” Explain.               

Ans. Suppression of a country deprives people of their identity and freedom. A person has to face restrictions in his land. In these testing times, it is only our mother tongue that acts as a unifying force and binds us together.  

It becomes a weapon against the oppressors who compulsorily entered our country. It helps us to communicate our opinion and thoughts and express them to the persons. The teacher M Hamel is totally right when he says that tongue is ‘the key to his jail. Language is a means that initiates and supports the independence movement. He therefore reminds his countrymen of the significance of language; this is their individuality and when they clash for it the cohort to come will keep in mind that they were once slaves.



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